Kudamulukku Peru Vilaa (Maha Kumbhaabishekam) at Gangaikondacholeswarer Thirukkoyil

Thread started by virarajendra on 2nd February 2017 12:21 PM


The "Kudamulukku Peru Vilaa" (Maha Kumbhaabishekam) at "Gangaikondacholeswarer Thirukkoyil" built by the greatest "Tamil Chola Emperor - Rajendra Chola (A.D.1011-1044)" of Tamil Nadu - India - held on the 2nd February 2017

The birth of Rajendra Chola - 1 as the son of Rajaraja Chola - 1

Rajendra Chola - 1 was born on the Thiruvathirai Nakashathiram of the month of Adi (from mid July to Mid August) as the son of Rajaraja Chola - 1[/u] by his 'second' Queen Uthaiya Piraatiyaar Thambiran Adikal - Vaanavan Maadeviyar 'also known as' (alias) Thiribhuvanamadeviyaar. He was named as Mathuraanthahan. During his young days he learnt all aspects of warfare and administration in addition to the religious, philosopical and literary compositions under his Guru Esana Siva Pandithar. He successfully completed his studies and earned the title the 'Panditha Cholan'.

Rajendra Cholan - 1 with his capture of many regions in the Indian mainland, after a lapse of two years he became more ambitious in conquering the northern and north-western regions of India. He commenced his war expedition in this direction in the year A.D.1021 with his capture of Sakkarakkoattam the south Chhattisgarh.

From here he split his forces in to two and sent the first expedition in the direction of Ganges river in the north and the second expedition in the north-western direction while he stationed himself at Sakkarakkoattam until the two expeditions were complete.

The first expedition went towards towards river Ganges in the north from Sakkarakkoattam and captured the regions of Odda Vishayam of Orissa, Kosala Naadu the north Chhattisgarh, Thandabuththi in north Orissa , Thakkana Laadam in south Jharkhand, Vangala desam the Bangaladesh, Uttara Laadam of north Jharkhand and reached the great river Ganges.

The Chola Indian Mainland expedition ended in A.D.1022 and details of the countries conquered by his forces in this single expedition was included in his Meikeerthi's from the year A.D.1023

With his return Rajendra Cholan - 1 from his expedition towards the great Ganges river region claimed a new title as "Gangaikondaan", and gave the title "Gangaikonda Cholan" (the Chola who captured Gangai) to his younger brother who lead the Gangetic expedition.

Rajendra Cholan - 1 commenced the construction of a new city named the "Gangaikonda Cholapuram", with a new Siva Temple named "Gangaikonda Cholaeswarem", and a big 'temple water tank' named the "Chola Gangam" where the holy water brought in from the Ganges River was mixed.

The Essalam Copper Plates of Rajendra Cholan - 1 specifically states that with the conquest of the Gangetic region, it was Rajendra Cholan - 1 who constructed the new city the Gangaikonda Cholapuram, the great Gangaikonda Choleswarer temple, and the sacred Cholagangam Tank at the Udaiyar Palaiyam region of Ariyalur district.

In this great temple "Gangaikonda Cholaeswarem" built by him, the presiding deity of the Karuvarai (Sanctum Sanctorium) was known as the "Gangaikonda Cholaeswarer" also known as "Peruvudaiyar" - the God Siva in the form of Lingam, the biggest Lingam among the Siva Temples both in India and Worldover, having a height of 13 ft and 20 ft in circumferance. The Goddess was known as Periyanayaki

Note: Only during the subsequent period in the fourteenth century during the perid of Nayakkar kings at Thanjavur the changed the name of Peruvudaiyar as Birahadeeswarer and Periyanayaki as Brahmanayaki.

Construction of Gangaikonda Choleswarem Temple

The construction of the Gangaikonda Cholaeswarer Temple by Rajendra Chola - 1 was completed in the year A.D.1035. It was only in this year Rajendra Chola - 1 made much endowments and donations to this temple built by him. Subsequently in the year of death of Rajendra Chola - 1 in A.D.1044 his son Rajadhiraja Chola - 1 made much more endowments to the Gangaikonda Cholaeswarer Temple (possibly for the merit of the Soul of his father Rajendra Chola - 1). He also made further endowments to this Temple in A.D.1048. All these endowments that have been made both by Rajendra Chola - 1 and his son Rajadhiraja Chola - 1 verbally were recorded on Ola Leaves by the Olai Nayagam witnessed by high Officers of these kings and records were well preserved. However it was only during the period of Virarajendra Chola - 1 these details from Ola Leaves were inscribed on the basement of Outer Walls of the Karuvarai and Mahamandapam falling within the second Pirakara of the Gangaikonda Cholewarer Temple, on the instructions of Virarajendra Chola - 1 fourth Son of Rajendra Chola - 1. Further the donations made to this Temple by Virarajendra Chola - 1 himself in the year A.D.1068 too were inscribed in the same place, following the details of the endowments made by his 'father and elder brother' referred in these Inscriptions as 'Iyyer and Annar'. This long Inscription of Virarajendra - 1 is the 'longest and the earliest' inscription that has been inscribed in this Temple.

Basic Architecture of the Temple

The Karuvarai (sanctum sanctorium) is built on a square basement measuring 92 1/2 ft per side externally, with its four walls rising to a height of 70 1/2 ft in two levels, from where the Vimanam (Tower rising over Karvarai) rises tapering to a height of 185 ft in nine tiers upto a truncated basement of the tapering Vimanam measuing approximately 5 ft per side externally. On this basement was laid a single spherical stone estimated to be of a weight of ---- tons, and going to a further height of 6 ft with a Seppuk (copper) Kalasam adorning it at it's crown.

The Seppuk (Copper) Kalasam laid covered with gold sheets and placed on the temple by the Saiva Acharya..... of this temple on the occasion of the Kumbha Abishekam of this temple.

The first tier and the second tier - interior perimeter corridors have the statues of Saivite deities.

The "Gopuram" of this big temple goes to a height of ---- ft and the construction of this temple was completed and the first Kumba-abishekam was done, around A.D.1035.

During Rajendra Chola's period a two floor enclosure (thiru-chuttru-maaligai) was built surrounding the Gangaikonda Cholaeswarem temple.

The original Nandi that was built during the period of Rajendra Chola - 1 has been posible removed from it's original location in front of the temple at a subsequent period, and now lost to us (and the present stucco Nandi appear to have been of much latter period possibly during the Maharashtra period of Thanjavur). The present Simha Kinaru (well) too appears to be that of that of latter period.


Tamil Inscriptions on the Granite Structures of the Temple Complex

There are eleven Inscriptions nine of them are inscribed on the east, west, and north Granite Walls of the Second Pirakara connected to the half dilapitated Granite Structure of the Main Entrance Gopuram of the Temple. Among them the Inscription of Virarajendra Chola (A.D.1063-1070) the fourth son of Rajendra Chola - 1 is the longest inscribed Inscription of this period in this Temple. Other Inscriptions belong to that of Later Paandiya Kings and others namely, two of Maravarman Kulasekara Paandiyan, Konerimaikondaan Vikkrama Paandiyan, Konerimaikondaan Sri Sunthara Paandiyan, two of Ekambaran Gangeyan, Kulothunga Chola - 1, and one inscription of Virupaksharayer son of Malikarujunadeva Maharayar the Vijayanagara king. (S.I.I.Vol 4 - Nos 522-530)


Important Note:

In the above Video it is mentioned that we have only one Inscription that too of Rajadhiraja Chola - 1 in the Gangaikonda Cholewarem Temple, which is totally incorrect. There are no Inscriptions belonging to Rajadhiraja Chola -1 to be found anywhere in the Gangaikonda Choleswarem temple. Further we are aware that around twenty Inscriptions have been discovered in the Temple as of today. Further there are also some Inscriptions visible even today at the Lower Anicut (Dam) built acroos Kollidam River, as the British Engineer Arthur Cotton who built same in A.D.1896 used dismantled granite stones from the Gangaikonda Cholapuram Temple and it's other Structures. These visible Tamil Inscriptions on the Stones and Carved Pillars used to build these Dam Walls should be trascribed and documented long before they are lost to us forever - by enthusiastic young Epigraphists of Tamil Nadu - from the Low Anicut (Dam) over Kollidam

The Tamil Thevara Pathikams sung on Gangaikonda Choleswarer by Karuvur Thevar

The Saivite Sage "Karuvur Thevar" of the period of Rajaraja Cholan - 1 and Rajendra Cholan - 1 has sung 'Thiruvisaippaa' (Hyms) on these two great Siva Temples, which have now been included in the nineth Thirumurai of the twelve - Tamil Saiva Thirumuraikal.

Karuvur Thevar's Tamil Saivite Pathikam on Gangaikonda Cholaeswarer

கங்கைகொண்ட சோளேச்சரம்

அன்னமாய் விசும்பு பறந்தயன் தேட
அங்ஙனே பெரியநீ சிறிய
என்னையாள் விரும்பி என்மனம் புகுந்த
எளிமையை என்றும்நான் மறக்கேன்
முன்னம்மால் அறியா ஒருவனாம் இருவா
முக்கணா நாற்பெருந் தடந்தோள்
கன்னலே தேனே அமுதமே கங்கை
கொண்டசோ ளேச்சரத் தானே. 1

உண்ணெகிழ்ந்(து) உடலம் நெக்குமுக் கண்ணா !
ஓலமென்(று) ஓலமிட்(டு) ஒருநாள்
மண்ணினின்று அலறேன் வழிமொழி மாலை
மழலையஞ் சிலம்படி முடிமேல்
பண்ணிநின்(று) உருகேன் பணிசெயேன் எனினும்
பாவியேன் ஆவியுள் புகுந்தென்
கண்ணினின்று அகலான் என்கொலோ கங்கை
கொண்டசோ ளேச்சரத் தானே. 2

அற்புதத்தெய்வம் இதனின்மற் றுண்டே
அன்பொடு தன்னைஅஞ் செழுத்தின்
சொற்பதத் துள்வைத்(து) உள்ளம்அள் ளூறும்
தொண்டருக்(கு) எண்டிசைக் கனகம்
பற்பதக் குவையும் பைம்பொன்மா ளிகையும்
பவளவா யவர்பணை முலையும்
கற்பகப் பொழிலும் முழுதுமாம் கங்கை
கொண்டசோ ளேச்சரத் தானே. 3

ஐயபொட் டிட்ட அழகுவாள் நுதலும்
அழகிய விழியும்வெண்ணீறும்
சைவம்விட் டிட்ட சடைகளும் சடைமேல்
தரங்கமும் சதங்கையும் சிலம்பும்
மொய்கொள்எண் திக்கும் கண்டநின் தொண்டர்
முகமலர்ந்து இருகணீர் அரும்பக்
கைகள்மொட் டிக்கும் என்கொலோ கங்கை
கொண்டசோ ளேச்சரத் தானே ! 4

கருதிவா னவனாம் திருநெடு மாலாம்
சுந்தர விசும்பின்இந் திரனாம்
பருதிவா னவனாம் படர்சடை முக்கண்
பகவனாம் அகஉயிர்க்கு அமுதாம்
எருதுவா கனனாம் எயில்கள் மூன்(று) எரித்த
ஏறுசே வகனுமாம் பின்னும்
கருதுவார் கருதும் உருவமாம் கங்கை
கொண்டசோ ளேச்சரத் தானே. 5

அண்டமோர் அணுவாம் பெருமைகொண்(டு) அணுவோர்
அண்டமாம் சிறுமைகொண்(டு) அடியேன்
உண்டவூண் உனக்காம் வகைஎன துள்ளம்
உள்கலந்(து) ஏழுபரஞ் சோதி
கொண்டநாண் பாம்பாம் பெருவரை வில்லில்
குறுகலர் புரங்கள் மூன்(று) எரித்த
கண்டனே ! நீல கண்டனே ! கங்கை
கொண்டசோ ளேச்சரத் தானே ! 6

மோதலைப் பட்ட கடல்வயி(று) உதித்த
முழுமணித் திரள்அமு(து) ஆங்கே
தாய்தலைப் பட்டங்(கு) உருகிஒன் றாய
தன்மையில் என்னைமுன் ஈன்ற
நீதலைப் பட்டால் யானும் அவ்வகையே
நிசிசரர் இருவரோடு ஒருவர்
காதலிற் பட்ட கருணையாய் கங்கை
கொண்டசோ ளேச்சரத் தானே. 7

தத்தையங் கனையார் தங்கள்மேல் வைத்த
தயாவைநூ றாயிரங் கூறிட்(டு)
அத்திலங்(கு) ஒருகூ(று) உன்கண்வைத் தவருக்(கு)
அமலரு(கு) அளிக்கும்நின் பெருமை
பித்தனென்(று) ஒருகால் பேசுவ ரேனும்
பிழைத்தவை பொறுத்தருள் செய்யும்
கைத்தலம் அடியேன் சென்னிவைத்த கங்கை
கொண்டசோ ளேச்சரத் தானே. 8

பண்ணிய தழல்காய் பாலளா நீர்போல்
பாவமுன் பறைந்துபா லனைய
புண்ணியம் பின்சென்(று) அறிவினுக்(கு) அறியப்
புகுந்ததோர் யோகினில் பொலிந்து
நுண்ணியை எனினும் நம்பநின் பெருமை
நுன்னிடை ஒடுங்கநீ வந்தென்
கண்ணினுள் மணியிற் கலந்தனை கங்கை
கொண்டசோ ளேச்சரத் தானே. 9

அங்கைகொண்(டு) அமரர் மலர்மழை பொழிய
அடிச்சிலம்பு அலம்பவந்(து) ஒருநாள்
உங்கைகொண் டடியேன் சென்னிவைத் தென்னை
உய்யக்கொண் டருளினை மருங்கில்
கொங்கைகொண்(டு) அனுங்கும் கொடியிடை காணில்
கொடியள்என்(று) அவிர்சடை முடிமேல்
கங்கைகொண் டிருந்த கடவுளே ! கங்கை
கொண்டசோ ளேச்சரத் தானே. 10

மங்கையோ டிருந்த யோகுசெய் வானை
வளர்இளந் திங்களை முடிமேல்
கங்கையோ(டு) அணியும் கடவுளைக் கங்கை
கொண்டசோ ளேச்சரத் தானை
அங்கையோ டேந்திப் பலிதிரி கருவூர்
அறைந்தசொல் மாலையால் ஆழிச்
செங்கையோ(டு) உலகில் அரசுவீற் றிருந்து
திளைப்பதும் சிவனருட் கடலே. 11

Destruction of Gangaikonda Cholaeswarer Temple during Muslim Invasion and during the British period

Under the rule of the Mugal Emperor of Delhi namely Aurangazib, his 'Military General; Allaudin Kilji invaded South India and Tamil Nadu around A.D.1310. In Tamil Nadu he raided and pillaged the Gangaikonda Cholapuram Temple a masterpiece of "Tamilian Architecture" and carried away all it's wealth.

Around A.D.1860 the British Engineer Arther Cotton who was appointed by the then British Government to look into and improve the water resources, dismantled very many Granite stone slabs from 'Main Entrance Gopuram' and the connected surrounding Walls further destroying the Gangaikonda Choleswarer temple complex, without preserving the great monument of "Tamilian Temple Architectural Monument" of Cholas, but utilised same to construct a Granite Stone Dam known as Lower Anicut across Kaveri River at the point of Kollidam in Tamil Nadu.

It seems very much greater damage to the Gangaikonda Choleswarer Temple was done by the British Engineer Arther Cotton who dismantled very many granite structures of this Temple complex and reducing the Outermost Wall connected to the main Eastern Gopuram to almost half of their original heights, and have used them to build the Dams (Lower Anicut) across the Kollidam River, than the damage caused by the Muslim Invader from Delhi in the year A.D.1310. Probably young enthusiastic Archeologists and Epigraphists of the present day - if they visit these Dam Sites and inspect the Granite Stones used in construction of the Dam dismantled from sections of Gangaikonda Choleswarer Temple complex Walls and Buildings, which "can be see even today".

Below is the Photograph taken of the Main Gopuram at Gangaikonda Cholaeswarer Temple during the British Period prior to the British Engineer dismantling this Gopuram and the Thiuchuttru Walls to half it's size.


(Courtesy: Sashidharan of Facebook












Brief History of the rule of great "Tamil Chola Emperor - Rajendra Chola - 1 (A.D.1011-1044)who built the "Gangaikondacholeswarer" Thirukkoyil"

Rajendra Cholan - 1(A.D.1012-1044)

The able son of Rajaraja Chola - 1 (A.D.985-1011) Rajendra Cholan - 1 initially captured the kingdoms of the Island (Goa) Santhimativu of India, whole of Maldive Islands (Palpalanthivukal), whole of Sri Lanka (Elamadalam muluvathum)

Thereafter he concentrated on the mainland India and captured the kingdoms of Banavaasi of the present west Karnataka (Vanavasi), north Karnataka (Idaithurai Nadu) and Mannaikkadakkam of north Karnataka (Mannaikonda Cholan), the Kulpark (Kollippaakai) of west Andhra, the Chalukiyan territory of south Maharaastra Irrataipaadi (Irrataipaadikonda Cholan).

After a spell of few years in A.D.1021 he made a great expedition toward the Gangetic region and towards North-West India against the continuous Muslim invasions of north-west India by Mahumad of Gazni from Afganistan, and captured more regions of then India than that by his father which included the present north Andhra (Sakkarakottam) from where his branched off into two groups. The first group of his army moved towards the Gangatic region and captured the present region of central Orrisa (Oddavishayam), the Bangaladesh and West Bengal (Vangala desam), the north Chattisgarh (Kosalai Naadu), the north Orissa (Thandabuththi), the south Jharkhand (Thakkana Laadam), and reached the great river Ganges (Gangaikonda Cholan), crossed further beyond and captured the north Jharkhand (Uttara Laadam) along the East India

All these victories made him construct another magnificient architectural monument - also a temple dedicated to God Siva 'entirely in granite stone' going to a height of 186 ft named "Gangaikonda Cholaeswarem", at his newly built Chola capital city named the "Gangaikonda Cholapuram", and a sacred water tank too was built for this temple named "Chola Gangam" (in the present Ariyalur district), where the water from river Ganges brought in pots after his victory over Gangetic region were poured into to make it more sacred..

The second group of his army went towards the north-west of India from Sakkarakkoattam direct to the Mathuramandalam crossing the Kalachuria, Chandella and Paramara kingdoms in between, enabled by the friendly ties the Cholas had with these countries. Chola forces thus captured the kingdoms of the present Mathura of west Uttar Pradesh (Mathuramandalam) the north Haryana (Namanaikkonam), the east Punjab of India (Panchappalli), the north Punjab also of Pakistan (Maasunidesam) and the south Kashmir (Athinagar the Purvadesam - Purva means ancient). The great Tamil Kerala Epic - Manimekalai specifically states that "Purvadesam - was in the Gandhara country" which encompassed the south Kashmir region.

The second expedition of the forces of Rajendra Cholan - 1 that went towards Mathuramandalam of north-west of India, was to assist his ally Paramara Bhoja of Malawa of south Madya Pradesh to fight against the continuous invasions of Mahumad of Gazni of west Afghanistan, and also relieve the kingdoms that already fell victims to his invasions, namely the Kanyakubja, Mathura, Namanaikkonam, Panchappalli, Masunidesam and Athinagar (Purvadesam of the Gandhara territory) the present Kashmir-Sind region of India and South Pakistan which was successfully achieved - with "Mahummad of Gazni" retreating back to "Gazni his capital in Afganistan".

http://farm5.staticflickr.com/4036/5...2f290b15_z.jpg http://www.clubmahindrablog.com/wp-c.../CHOLA-556.jpg



The above Image is that of Rajendra Chola - 1 receiving the blessings of God Siva with the dressing of Flower Garland on his Hair knots. The first two are the Images of the Gangaikonda Cholaeswarer temple

Therafter he turned his attention far overseas in South-East Asia, and further undertook a big war expedition "with large fleet of ships to South & South-East Asian countries", and captured - the kingdoms of Malaysia the present Kedah and Perak states (Kadaarem) {Kadaremkonda Cholan}, the present Kelantan and Negiri Sembilan states (Valaipandur), the present Johore which included the present Singapore Island (Mayirudingam), the kingdoms of Sumatra of Indonesia the present Palembang, Lampung, states (Sri Vijaya) {Vijayamkonda Cholan}, the present Jambi, Perkanbaru states (Malaiyur), the present Banga Island in between Malaysia and Sumatra (Mevilibankam), the present region of Pane (Pannai), the present Lemuri state (Ilamuridesam), the kingdom of Pegu of south Miyanmar the former Burma (Maa-Pappaalam), the kingdoms of Thailand namely the present Langasuka state (Ilankasokam), the present Takua-Pa (Thalai-Takkolam) the present Tamalingam state (Maa-Thamalingam) and the present Nicobar & Andaman Islands (Maa-Nakkavaaram) and formed a great Chola Overseas Empire in the year A.D.1025". This is why a non-Tamil modern Historian has referred to Rajaraja Chola - 1 and his son Rajendra Chola -1 as "kings of World Stature".


Historically with the fall of the 'Sri Vijaya Empire' of 'Indonesia and Malaysia' to Cholas, the "Tamil Chola Empire" became the biggest Empire of the World of this period A.D.1025-1073, while the Chinese and the Kampuchean Empires of this same period became the 'second' and the 'third' in power.



The Cholas had good trade and political relations with the Chinese Empire of that period under the Buddhist Sung dynasty, the Sri Vijaya Empire of Indonesia under the Buddhist Chulamanivarman dynasty - which earlier ruled over the present Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia, and with Kampuchea (Cambodia) under Hindu Suriyavarman dynasty. It was during the period of these two Tamil Chola Emperors, many Chola trade and political Embassies were sent to Imperial Courts - of the Sung dynasty of the Chinese empire and to the Sri Vijaya empire of Indonesia. Many Buddhist Monks from China and Sumatra (then Sri Vijaya) and also from Sri Lanka too visited Nagapattinam and Kanchipuram the two important Buddhist centres of Tamil Nadu.


During the period of Rajaraja Chola - 1 and Rajendra Chola - 1, Tamil Nadu flourished in every direction with much development in Tamil - Language, Literature, Music, Dance, Drama, Temple and Civil Architecture & Construction, Sculpture (Stone & Bronze), Painting, and other Fine Arts. It was under them the Chola empire had a well knit Chola Administrative System, and had much active Overseas Trade activities especially with the South-East Asian countries and China. The Indian Religions namely the Saivaism, Vaishnavaism, Vedism, Buddhism and Jainism too flourished under their patronage

Many Tamils of the Tamil Nadu of today, are not aware of their "Glorious History" of the past and the greatness of their Traditional Tamil Kingdoms from the time immemorial, namely the Chera (in Kerala), Chola, Paandiya - kingdoms, and the kingdoms of the Thondaimandalam, Kongu and Aye (in Kerala) regions, and of the rich "Tamil Culture and Traditions" that has developed within these regions.

So it is a prime necessity that the Tamils of Tamil Nadu be made fully aware of them.


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