A brief study on the Pandiyas (Paandiyar) of the "third Sangam" Period of Tamil Nadu

Thread started by virarajendra on 18th August 2012 07:45 AM


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A brief study on the Pandiyas (Paandiyar) of the "third Sangam" Period of Tamil Nadu

(1) The destruction of Kapaadapuram of Pandiya country by a great sea erosion (Tsunami)

The Paandiyar dynasty of Tamil Nadu India fostered the growth of Tamil - Language and Literary Studies, with many Tamil Poets composing poetic works from the institutions known as Thamil Sangams under the royal patronage of the Paandiyar kings. There had been three such Sangams from the early days, with the third (last) Thamil Sangam having been located in the present Mathurai in south Tamil Nadu.

The second Thamil Sangam which was at Kapadapuram (on a land mass east of present Ramanathapuram district which submerged under a big sea erosion (Tssunami). The last king of the Paandiya country at the time at Kapadapuram was Muudath ThiruMaaran, who escaped from the disaster and came towards the central region of the Paandiyan country, and built his new capital city the present Mathurai of Tamil Nadu. He re-establised the Third Thamil Sangam in this region. However this Sangam lasted until the time of the Paandiyan king Ukkirap Peruvaluthi as an organised institution with many Poets from various parts of Tamil Nadu doing Tamil Language and Literary studies and composing many Tamil literary and poetic compositions under their royal patronage.

Towards the end of the rule of Paandiyan Ukkirapperuvaluthi a great famine struck Paandiya Nadu which put an end the Third Thamil Sangam. The famine lasted 12 - years. After this period the Thamil Sangam ceased to exist as a single Tamil development Institution, and many scholarly poets from various parts of Tamil Nadu composed poems on their own, which survived as the Literary works of the Post-Sangam Period.

The Paandiya kings of the Third Sangam period.

Maran dynasty

(1) Mudath Thiru Maran (B.C.219-197)

(2) Chitramaadaththu thunjiya Nan Maran (B.C.197-175)

Uruththirasanmar - Thohuppaasiriyar of Ahanaanooru

(3) Ilavanthikai thunjiya Nan Maaran (B.C.175-153)

Vaaluthi dynasty

(4) Koodakaththu thunjiya Maran Valuthi(B.C.153-131)

(5) Pannaadu thantha Maran Valuthi (B.C.131-109)

(6) Nal Valuthi (B.C.109-83)

(7) Kuru Valuthi (B.C.83-61)

(11) Karunkaivaat Peruvaluthi (B.C.61-39)

(12) Velliambalam thunjiya Peruvaluthi (B.C.39-17)

(13) Kadalul Maaintha Ilam Peruvaluthi (B.C.17-05)

(14) Ukkirapp Peruvaluthi (A.D.05-27)

One of his achievements was the victory over the valient Chieftain named Veangai Maarban of Tamil Nadu and the capture of his fortress named Kaanap Pereyil. It was during the period of of this Paandiyan king the arangetram of the great Tamil treatise on Code of Ethics the Thirukkural of the Sage/Poet Thiruvalluver was done at the third Thamil Sangam in Mathurai in his presense. His Chola and Chera contemporary kings were the (Rasasuyam Veatta) Perunatkilli and Maari Venko.

(9) Famine in Paandiya Naadu (A.D.27-39)

Towards the end of rule of Paandiyan Nedumaran Valuthi the Paandiya Nadu underwent acute weather changes with severe drought resulting in with much famine in the country. As this situation prolonged kin Nedumaran Valuthi requested all the court Poets to find their way to other countries with more fertile lands to tide over the situation, and to return back with improved conditions in the country. This caused the activities of the Third Thamil Sangam coming to a halt a temporarily. But it took twelve long years for the weather conditions of Paandiya Nadu to change again and gradually turn back into fertile land. It appears within this period the Paandiyan king Nedumaran Valuthi too met his death.

(10) Muthukudumi Peruvaluthi (A.D.39-61)

It appears after Ukkirap Peruvaluthi possibly his son acended the throne of the Paandiya kingdom. With bad experience of famine in Pandiya country for twelve years he tried to put his country in the path of development and progress. He not only made use of human efforts to uplift his country, but also used the divine blessings to achieve same and achieve prosperity to his country turned to Vedic Priests to perform many Yaagas (Yagna) in his kingdom. Hence he came to be known as "Pal Yaaga Muthukudumi Peruvaluthi".


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